Chapter V



AFTER 1663 we have the minutes of the Committee of Pious Uses, and though most of the entries as to the School deal only with the appointment and payment of the masters, we occasionally get a glimpse into more internal matters. The material, however, is still so fragmentary that I have thought it best again to arrange the facts under heads.


THE MEETINGS OF THE COMMITTEE were held with a certain style. They were known as �Courts,� and the Committee itself was called �the Committee appointed by decree for the execution of charitable uses within the borough of Leeds.� The vicar was chairman. The members as a rule were men of eminence in the town. Absentees were fined 6d. in 1722, 1s. in 1764; late comers 3d. in 1730. In 1776 and 1793 non-resident members were urged to resign. For each of the charities dealt with�the highways, the poor, and the School�-a treasurer and a sub-committee were usually appointed, and their decisions were ratified at the courts. Attached to the Committee there were certain officials, viz. :

(a) a Clerk�first appointed in 1665��to enrol in their register book all orders made by the Committee, and to make all leases, conveyances or other instruments.�

(b) a Summoner of the Courts, dating from at any rate 1673. In 1822 this was a woman.

(c) a Steward (appointed c. 1767) �to take care of the estates and to make surveys and estimates for repairing the tenements.� He was also to collect the rents and pay them �immediately to the treasurer.�


IN THE INQUISITION of 1661 it is stated that �the yearly sum of the rents of the school lauds do amount to the sum of �32 13s. 1d. at a rent day or half year's rent.� In 1666 their value had about doubled; but out of this the Master and the Usher had to be paid, the school and the buildings kept in repair, and fines paid for the renewal of the copyholds, and it is not surprising to hear that in 1761 the Schoolhouse was �much ruinous and out of repayre� so that the Committee had to direct that all the surplus after paying the Master and Usher should be used for putting it right.

In 1674�the same year in which all the school property at Ripon was let to the Master there�it was arranged that the Master should receive the rents on condition that he paid the Usher and the officials, kept the buildings in repair, and handed over to the Committee a stated sum for fines and other purposes. Salaries however, fell into arrears, and in 1691 the Committee, �for divers weighty reasons to them appearing, but especially that the houses given to the said School were found to be very ruinous and in great decay,� took back the management into their own hands, and in 1694 appointed two treasurers�reduced in 1705 to one �to see after the estates. About the same time (1692) the Library was erected, in the lower room of which there was �a Convenience for a Fire for the Scholars in Winter,� and in 1708 �seats for the scholars were uniformly and neatly constructed.� In 1751 �a ffire Head and Chimney� were directed to be made in the School itself. In 1779 it was ordered that a house be built for the Master, to cost not more than �700 and cover not more than 44 square feet, �on the north side of the school-house yard and joined to the school itself by means of the Library.�

Meanwhile the value of the estates had risen, and Mr. Thomas Wilson's copy of the rent roll of 1742 shows a total of �423 1s. 0d. This was due partly to the growth of the town, partly to good management. In two respects however there was some slackness. Property was sometimes let to members of the Committee, and several buildings were often let to the same person who let them out again to sub-tenants �of such mean circumstances as rendered them unable to keep such tenements in repair.� Hence many of the houses fell into decay, and in 1767 it was resolved to let buildings only to such persons �as would occupy the same themselves,� and no longer to allow members of the Committee to become tenants. A steward also was appointed to look after the estates.


THE MASTERS and ushers during this period are shown in the following table.

1662. Michael Gilberts
Christ's Coll., Camb. 
B.A., 1661. 
M.A., 1665.,
ob. 1691(?)
1667. John Smith, �Gent.� 
(perhaps son of the previous Usher and  godson of John Harrison).
    1669. Timothy Bentley,
Magd. Coll., Camb.
    1676. Joseph Kay,
Jes. Coll., Camb. 
B.A., 1675.
    1678. Daniel Keene
Jes. Coll., Camb. 
B.A., 1677. 
M.A., 1681.
    1684. James Greenwood,
Christ's Coll., Camb.
B.A., 1680. 
M.A., 1685.
    1684. George Metcalfe,
Christ's Coll., Camb.
B.A.,  1682. 
(His appointment is not mentioned in the minutes, but later he is spoken of as Robert Metcalfe).
1691. Edward Clarke
late fellow of Clare Hall, Camb. 
B.A., 1680.
M.A, 1684. 
Vicar of Nottingham, 1694.
1694. Miles Farrer,
S. John's Coll., Camb. 
B.A., 1674. 
M.A., 1683.
Mr. Leach says he was son of a Westmorland farmer.
1698. Thomas Dwyer
late Fellow of S. John's Coll, Camb. 
B.A., 1689. 
M.A., 1692.
B.D, 1700. 
Mr. Leach says he was an Irishman from County Cork and originally a B.A. of Dublin: since 1693 he had been Headmaster of Pocklington G.S.  In 1706 he resigned, �seeking promotion at Sedbergh.�  He resigned Sedbergh in 1709, and became rector of Medbourne.
ob. 1719.
Thomas Atkinson.
Robert Simpson.
1706. Thomas Dixon
S. John's Coll., Camb.
B.A., 1704. 
Son of Alderman Dixon (a member of the Committee). 
ob. 1712.
1712. Thomas Barnard (O.L.) 
S.John's Coll., Camb., 
B.A., 1708.
M.A., 1713. 
Son of �Thomas Barnard de Leedes, Gen.� His mother was daughter of   the Town Clerk. His second  wife was sister of Dr. Drake, whom he helped in writing his �Eboracum.� He also wrote a Life of Lady Elizabeth Hastings, and was a regular contributor to the �Leeds Mercury.�
ob. 1750.
1730. Thomas Chapman,
Trin. Coll., Camb.,
B.A., 1729.
    1745. Joshua Crowther,
Vicar of Otley, 1746.
    1746. Jeremy Dixon.
    1748. Richard Sidgwick
S. John's Coll., Camb.
B.A., 1745. 
M.A., 1750. 
Appointed Master 1750.
1750. Richard Sidgwick
S. John's Coll., Camb.
B.A., 1745. 
M.A., 1750.
Previously classical master at �Mr. Randall's academy� at Heath, near Wakefield, and Usher   at  L.G.S. since 1748, 
ob. 1755.
John Parker.
John Moore
Cath. Hall, Camb. 
BA., 1752, 
M.A., 1755.
Appointed Master, 1755.
1755. John Moore
Cath. Hall, Camb. 
B.A., 1752. 
M.A., 1755.
Usher since 1752.
Resigned 1764.


William Lupton,
Trin. Coll., Camb. 
B.A., 1756. 
    1763. John Fawcett,
S. John's Coll., Camb. 
13th Wrangler, 
B.A., 1756.
M.A., 1765.
1764. Samuel Brooke
late Fellow of Trin. Coll., Camb. 
B.A., 1736.
M.A., 1740.
Rector of Gamston, Notts.
ob. 1778. 
�Distinguished for the point and neatness of his epigrams in Latin and English.� [Was he connected with the  Rev. Samuel Brooke, LL.D., Minister of S. John's, Leeds, 1717-1731?]
1778. Thomas Goodinge,
nat. 1745. 
Educated at Gloucester College School and Trin. Coll., Oxford (1763).
Master at Salisbury School, 1765.
Headmaster of Worcester School, 1768-1779.
Rector of Bredicot 1771. 
M.A. (Camb.) and LL.D. (Oxford) 1778. 
Rector  of Hutton, Somerset, 1783 [?1788]. 
Resigned 1789 on appointment to rectory of Cound, Salop.
ob. 1816. 
�A man of varied and accurate information which he well knew how to impart: lie was an excellent biblical and classical scholar and had a good botanical collection�an   impressive preacher.� 
[Vide �The Juvenile Magazine�(L.G.S.) of 1819. Other authorities state that he was of Trin. Coll., Camb. and S. John's Coll., Oxford].
1783. Joseph Swaine,
Trin. Hall, Camb., 
B.D., 1790.

Both masters were appointed by the Committee. I can find no record of the Master being consulted in the appointment of the Usher till 1841. As to the Master, the Founder's will specified that he should be �one honest Substantial learned Man.� Ermystead's grant was for a �Prieste sufficientlie learned to teache a Free Gramer Schole,� and the decree of 1663 ordered that he should be �a Graduate in one of the Universities of this Kingdom;� since then all the Masters have been graduates in Holy Orders. It is noteworthy that from 1694 to 1750 all came from S. John's College, Cambridge. As to the Ushers, some of the earlier ones, seem to have been neither graduates nor clergymen; but by degrees both these qualifications were expected, though even in 1815 candidates had only to be intending to take Holy Orders. In 1684 and 1815 an examination of the candidates is mentioned.

OF THE ADVERTISEMENT of a vacancy the earliest instance I can find was in 1730, when the post of Usher was ordered to be advertised in �John Hirst's paper��a marginal note says �Leeds Mercury.� In 1750 the �York Courant� was added, in 1755 the �Leeds Intelligencer� and the �White Hall Evening Post.� In 1778 the notice was to be in both Leeds papers, both York papers, the �General Evening Post,� and �London Evening Post.� In 1815 the �Courier,� �The Times,� and papers at Oxford and Cambridge were added. The �Ecclesiastical Gazette� appears in 1841. In 1854 notices were to be posted up also in the shops of Mr. Parker at Oxford and Mr. Deighton at Cambridge. Testimonials do not seem to have been required till 1778, when it was ordered that to the advertisement the following words should be added:�

�The Trustees being anxious to increase the Reputation of the School are determined to choose the person who appears to them to be the best qualified for the Office, but having reason to suppose there will be several candidates who may be entire strangers to them it is expected that every such candidate will send before the day of election or bring along with him a sufficient Testimonial from some person or persons of known character of his Abilities as a teacher of Greek and Latin, and if he has had the care of a School upon him heretofore it will give additional strength to his Recommendation.�

BY THE DECREE 1663 the power of dismissal of both masters was vested in the Committee. As a matter of fact dismissal, though more than once threatened, was only once�in 1710�actually carried into effect, and both posts came to be regarded as freeholds from which the incumbents could not be ejected so long as they complied with the conditions on which they were appointed. The Brief History says:�

�The headmaster was usually elected 'to hold and execute the said office under the rules and orders then appointed and upon his subscribing the same.' In the two cases of Dr. Goodinge [1778] and Mr. Whiteley [1789] he was declared to be duly elected on his conforming to these' and such other orders as shall hereafter be made relating to the economy and better regulation of the said school.' The under master was usually elected 'to continue and exercise his faculty until for causes reasonable he shall be ousted by the feoffees or major part of them; the same under master before his admittance to the said office subscribing such writing and instrument as shall be prepared by the feoffees in that behalf,'�

WITH REGARD TO THE STIPENDS we have seen that Sheafield's will fixed �10 as the minimum for the Master, and that according to Harrison's letter the Trustees wished to pay the Master �50 and the Usher �25 After 1691 the Master's stipend seems to have been �50 and the Usher's �20 to �25. In 1721 they were raised to �6o and �30 respectively. In 1737 to �105 and �52 10s. In 1750 they fell to �70 and �35, but in 1754 they were �126 and �63. In 1755 and 1764 the Master's stipend is stated as �100 and upwards. In 1778, �126.

The stipend, however, was by no means all that the masters received. There were various ways in which their income could be augmented, viz.:�

1. From time to time as the value of the estate increased, grants out of the surplus funds were voted to the masters. These were always stated to be �gratuities,� but gradually they tended to become regular payments, and a theory �and there was something to be said for it� sprang up that if the income exceeded the expenditure the masters were entitled to the surplus. The earliest instance I find of a gratuity being granted is in 1698, when �5 was voted to the Usher, and in 1699 the Master received �5 and the Usher �3. For some time the grants were small and rare; but they gradually increased in number and value, the Master as a rule receiving twice the sum voted to the Usher. In Mr. Barnard's time we find several grants of 20 and 10 guineas respectively. From 1771 gratuities were voted almost every year, usually 40 guineas to the Master and 20 to the Usher. From 1781 to 1789 they averaged 70 and 35 guineas.

2. Sums were also voted occasionally for special reasons. Thus in 1708 �10 was voted to the Master towards the charges of �takeing his Maister's of Arts Degree,� and �20 for a similar reason in 1713. In 1719 the Usher received �5 for the extraordinary pains and trouble he had taken in teaching the children under his care. Recognition was frequently made of the extra work entailed on either master owing to the absence or death of his colleague. Thus in 1746 the Master was remunerated for �his extraordinary trouble during the vacancy of an Usher.� In 1764 Mr. Fawcett received �21 for �his care of the school� when the Mastership was vacant, and �52 10s. in 1778, and the Master �10 10s. in 1783.

3. Boarders were taken, at any rate by the Master. The house built for Dr. Goodinge is described as �sufficiently convenient� for them, and Thoresby is apparently alluding to boarders when he says of �the learned and ingenious Thomas Dwyer, B.D,� that he �has at the same time committed to his charge the sons of the Lord Archbishop and Lord Mayor of York with others of the Justices of Peace at large besides those of the Corporation, etc.�. The charges are not recorded, nor is there any mention of foreigners' fees either, but the Brief History says that Dr. Goodinge �sent to the universities several scholars not free of the School.�

4. Presents too were received from scholars or their parents, for in 1737 it was ordered that �neither Master nor Usher henceforth take or receive any present or gratuity whatever from scholars whose parents reside within the parish of Leeds,� and it was apparently to compensate for the loss of these that the salaries were raised from �6o and �30 to �105 and �52 10s. respectively. The wording of this Order seems to imply that there were outsiders to whom fees might be charged.

5. The masters, as clergymen, might add to their incomes by taking clerical work, especially in those days of pluralism. This however might interfere with their teaching, and we shall find the Committee exercising strict control in this matter. Even the taking of Sunday duty at Leeds was viewed with suspicion. Thus in 1746 Jeremy Dixon, Usher, was �indulged to read prayers at St. John's Church for one year . . . but in such manner as shall not interfere with the Duty of the School.� The indulgence was continued in 1747 and was granted also to his successor.

THE MASTERS WERE EXPECTED to pay for their own residences, and when the house for the Master was built �35 was charged to Dr. Goodinge as rent. It appears also that the Master was responsible in some degree for the expenses of the upkeep of the school, for in 1737�when presents were abolished�the Committee undertook the expense of �glazing the Schoole windows and sweeping the Schoole.� Some idea of what this cost may be gained from the following facts. In 1753 Mary Gregg's salary for �sweeping the School and making the fires� was raised from 25/- to 40/. In 1779 Robert Thackrah was allowed �2 2s. annually for repairing the windows. In 1804 the �Keeper of the School� got �4 4s. and Rebecca Sedgwick �2 2s. for sweeping and fires.


BY THE DECREE OF 1663 the Committee were empowered �to make such laws and orders for the wellguiding and government of the said Free School as to them or the Major part of them shall seem most meet and expedient.�

Sometimes �Orders� were made during a Master's tenure of office, but as a rule they were revised when the Mastership became vacant and signed by the new Master after his election. The first Orders recorded (in 1694) are few and short, viz.:-�

1. That the Master explain the Church Catechism to his scholars every Saturday.

In 1706 this was altered to �once a month at the least.�
In 1735 the original Order was restored.
In 1764 �once a month� was again substituted.

2. That he do take an account of such scholars as are absent from Church and that such scholars as do frequent the Church do give an account to him of the Sermon every Monday morning.

This was dropped in 1712.

3. That the first two Forms in the School do constantly speak Latin.

This does not appear after 1706.

4. That the Master be not absent more than ten days in the year except ordinary times of playing [i.e. holidays and vacations] without previous leave obtained from the vicar.

A result, if not the object, of this Order was to make it difficult to hold a benefice with the Mastership. In 1735 it was extended to the Usher.
In 1764 fourteen days absence was allowed, and the breach of the Order vacated the post, unless due to �inevitable accident.�

FOR CONVENIENCE the other Orders passed during this period may be added here, viz.:�

5. [1706]. The boys shall not have play [i.e. a holiday] granted in any week wherein there is a holyday, and not to have play above one afternoon in any other week over and above Thursdays and Saturdays in the afternoon as hath been usual, and not to play on any Tuesday in the afternoon unless the same be a holyday.

This seems to show that Saints' Days were holidays and Thursdays and Saturdays half-holidays. Was the objection to Tuesday that it was a market day?
In 1735 it was added that no play should be granted in any forenoon.

6. [1708]. The times of goeing and beginning in the morning to be att haife an hour past Eight and to Leave of att halfe an houre past Eleaven and to come againe att one of the Olocke in the afternoone and to leave of att halfe an hour past Three and soo from day to day on dayes of Learning during the time commonly called Order Time And . . .if any of the Scholars shall dureing the Order Time as aforesaid Insult their Maister or be wilfully negligent That they shall be Lyable to Correction.

In 1710 the hours were fixed thus:

Lady Day to Martinmas 7�11-30; 1-5.
Martinmas to Lady Day 8�11-30; 1-4.

In 1735 the same hours are stated as in 1710, with the addition, �that during the time commonly called Order Time the scholars shall only be obliged to be at the Schoole at halfe an hour past eight, etc.,� as in 1708. What is meant by �Order Time� I do not know. It was also added in 1735 that �a catalogue of the Boys belonging to the Free Schoole be made and the names called over every day of learning by the Monitors in the presence of the Master and Usher� at the beginning of morning and afternoon school.

In 1764 the hours fixed were�

Lady Day to Michaelmas�7-12; 1-30�5-30.
Michaelmas to Martinmas�8-12; 1-30�4-30.
Martinmas to Candlemas�8-12; 1-30�4.
Candlemas to Lady Day�8-12; 1-30�4-30.

No mention is made of Order Time and the clause as to insulting the Master is dropped.

7. [1737]. Neither Master nor Usher henceforth take or receive any present or gratuity whatever from any of those scholars whose parents reside within the parish of Leeds.

In 1764 these are described as �Scholars free of the School.�

8. [1737]. The masters at Whitsuntide and Martinmas every year to send in a list of the names of every scholar under their respective care.

In 1764 �twice a year� was substituted for �Whitsuntide and Martinmas,� the duty was put on the Master, and the boys were to be arranged in classes.

9. [1764]. The Master for the time being do every morning immediately after his coming to School and in the evening before the School breaks up read or cause to be read some part of the Common Prayer.

10. [1764]. See the special section on the Library.

11. [1764]. Neither the Master nor Usher shall hereafter accept of any preferment during the time of their continuance in their respective offices without the assent of the major part of the Committee first had and obtained.

In 1706 Mr. Dixon had been directed not to accept of any other preferment while Master without the previous consent of the Committee.

12. [1785]. Whenever Whitsuntide falls within the Month of May the Head Master . . . may at his Discretion Allow the same Vacation usually given at Whitsuntide in the months of June or July giving Fourteen Days Previous Notice to the Scholars Parents of such Alteration.

This is the only notice I can find in this period of vacations. It may however be assumed that the vacations were at Christmas and Midsummer, and this Order seems to allow the addition of the few days given at Whitsuntide to the summer vacation. The Order does not appear again.

MANY OF THESE ORDERS probably originated in some special abuse, e.g. the rule about preferment was possibly due to the sudden departure of Mr. Dwyer for Sedbergh. In this connection, and also as throwing some light on the condition of the School, it will be worth while to consider some of the troubles with which the Committee had to deal. In Mr. Dixon's time there was evidently serious disorder in the School, for on 12 Nov. 1708 there is the following entry:�

�Whereas since the signing the Orders proposed by the Scholars to Mr. Dixon Maister of the Free Schoole and Mr. Simpson Usher the said Orders [apparently as to school hours etc. which the boys seem to have wished to have put down in black and white] have been broake and thereby an unusuall Disorder hath ensued and therefore It is desired that the Committees will interpose the Authority in them reposed ffor the putting an end to the said disorders and-preventing the like for the ffuture Which being taken into Consideration by this Committee It is thought ffit & Enjoynd That there shall be an Indempnity of Punishments for all Misdemeanors & Malfeazances whatsoever that have already happened And that ffor the ffuture the Orders last made & agreed to shall be strictly observed both by the Maisters & Scholars Except what relates to the houres of Comeing to or begining & goeing or Leaveing of ffrom the Schoole which It is likewise Enjoyned by this Committee to be as follows��here follows Order 6 [1708] with the clause about insulting the Master in Order Time� �And it is ffurther Ordered that this Order be publicly read in the Schoole too Morrow That due observance may be had thereof.�

On 30 June 1710 further trouble is recorded.

�Forasmuch as It doth Evidently appeare to this Committee that Mr. Thomas Dixon Head Maister [the first occasion I think on which the Master is thus styled] of Leeds Free Grammar Schoole hath deserted and absented himself ffrom the said Schoole for upwards of a ffortnight now last past contrary to the orders of the said ffree Schoole in that case made which he did agree to whereby the place of Maister of the said ffree Schoole is vacant And the same is accordingly by this Committee declared vacant And it is agreed that an other Maister shall be Chosen to succeed the said Mr. Dixon in the said ffree Schoole And that there shall be a meeting of the Committees on the 14th day of July now next ensuing in order to make a new Election.

Agreed and Ordered that Mr. Robert Simpson Usher of the ffree Grammar Schoole shall have ffull Authority to teach & correct All the Boyes that were under Mr. Dixon . . . untill another Maister shall be chosen . . . And that the said Boyes shall submitt themselves to the said Mr. Simpson dureing the said Time.�

Mr. Dixon had a good deal of influence behind him. His father was mayor in 1671 and 1693 and a member of the Committee, and his brother had been minister of S. John's, and,on 21 July 1710 �the Question being put whether Mr. Thomas Dixon the late Maister . . . be capable of being restored Maister . . . It passed by a Majority in the Affirmative.� He was accordingly re-elected, but a somewhat lurid light is cast on the matter by a resolution,

�that if Mr. Thomas Dixon . . . shall be Guilty of any notorious Immorality especially of being Drunk in the Schoole which shall be made appeare to the Committee the said Schoole shall thereupon be declared vacant And an other Maister shall be Chosen in his stead And that this Order be Ingrossed to be subscribed by the said Mr. Dixon in, Testimony of his Consent thereunto.�

IN A FREE SCHOOL discipline was always a problem, and severe punishment was more than once a cause of complaint. In 1730, for instance, it was ordered that Mr. Chapman �shall have no nomination for a license [for ordination?] till he shall give good proof of his milder behaviour towards the Boys,� and in 1762 the Committee, finding that the kinds of punishment Mr. Moore was charged with inflicting were �highly improper,� reprimanded him and admonished him against such behaviour for the future. The following incident, however, will show how the Committee backed up the Master on a question of discipline. On 8 Apr. 1779

�Doctor Goodinge (Master of the School) represents to this Committee that one Bolland a Scholar in the Free School at Leeds having Committed a Fault he gave him a Task to perform which the said Bolland refused to do and upon this the said Dr. Goodinge threatening to Correct him he ran out of the School and the Father of the said Bolland being watching at the Door of the said School and there insulting the said Dr. Goodinge he refused to take the said Bolland into the School again unless the said Bolland and his Father would make some Apology for their Conduct. That the said Bolland and his Father have never made such Apology for such their Conduct nor hath either of them made any Application for the said Bolland being re-admitted into the School but the Mother of the said Bolland hath informed Doctor Goodinge of their intentions to send her son to school again. Doctor Goodinge requests the sentiments of the Committee in what manner he should act as he apprehends the keeping a proper Discipline in the said School will be highly conducive to its Welfare. Resolved that the Conduct of the said Bolland and his Father is Scandalous and intollerable and the Committee request that the said Bolland may never again on any Account be readmitted as a Scholar in the said Free Grammar School.

Resolved that this Committee will always exert themselves in supporting the Authority of the Master of the said Free School and as the Members of this Committee are of opinion that the want of proper Discipline in the said School hath been a great means of its late Decline they earnestly recommend it to the Master and Usher of the said School to exert themselves in Establishing proper, Discipline in the said School.

Ordered that a copy of the matter above mentioned and of these Resolutions be transmitted to Doctor Goodinge and that he be requested and he is hereby requested to read the same in the School when the Usher and Scholars are attending.�

THE COMMITTEE HOWEVER found themselves at issue with Dr. Goodinge on several points. In 1783 they asked him to attend to the rules as to hours and holidays, and in 1784 insisted that the list of Scholars furnished to them should be of. �those who are really at school at the time the List is given and none else.� The chief trouble however arose on the question of preferment. It seems that before his appointment Dr. Goodinge had been presented to a living in Somersetshire, but till 1788 had been prevented from �enjoying� it by a lawsuit. The Committee complained that he had not asked their leave, but when Dr. Goodinge said he had forgotten the rule they gave their consent. In 1789 however he accepted the living of Cound in Shropshire without asking permission, and on June 25 the Committee declared that he had forfeited the Mastership. When however Dr. Goodinge said that he would not leave before Christmas the Committee, �to avoid litigation,� decided that his successor should not enter on office till then, and on Sept. 4 declared that their action was not meant to �cast the least reflection upon the character conduct or reputation of Doctor Goodinge either as a gentleman or a schoolmaster,� but simply to enforce the rules and �put into a course of legal decision the validity of those rules in case Doctor Goodinge chose to contest it.� The controversy ended amicably. Dr. Goodinge tendered his resignation and the Committee accepted it, but asked him to stay till Christmas, and voted him 200 guineas for fixtures and extra expenses incurred in building and furnishing the house.

OF THE WORK inside the School the minutes say little, but we can gather that each of the masters had definite Forms allotted to him over which the other had normally no control. This is shown by the Order of 1710, as to Mr. Simpson taking charge of Mr. Dixon's boys. So too in 1750, when Mr. Barnard was ill, leave was granted for Mr. Sidgwick to �be his Assistant [i.e. teach his boys] and also take under his care the head class in the low end [i.e. the highest Form he had had as Usher] and that Mr. Proctor [a temporary substitute] may teach the Boys in the low end [i.e, the other Forms of the Usher] in Mr. Sidgwick's stead. Mr. Barnard having . . . undertaken to gratify the sd Mr. Sidgwick and Mr. Proctor for their respective trouble.�

OF THE NUMBERS of the boys during this period we know nothing�though a �decline� is mentioned in 1779�and of the honours won by them we have only an imperfect record, compiled long afterwards and confined mainly to scholars who graduated at the universities or rose to high positions in the Church. Still even from this we can see that the School was doing good work, and it is noteworthy that though the education given was presumably a purely classical one we find boys distinguishing themselves afterwards in subjects of quite a different character. This may have been due to accident or to natural gifts, but I have a shrewd suspicion that it was largely owing to the qualities fostered in them by their classical training. A few of these boys who reflected lustre on their School may be appropriately mentioned here.

Among dignitaries of the Church we find Christopher Wilson, who won a fellowship at Catherine Hall, Cambridge, and became prebendary of Westminster, canon of S. Paul's, and in 1783 bishop of Bristol; Thomas Sharp, prebendary of Durham and archdeacon of Northumberland; Joseph Cookson, vicar of Leeds 1715-16�1745; Samuel Kirshaw, vicar of Leeds 1751-1786; John Hey, fellow of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, winner of the Seatonian prize poem, Whitehall preacher, and from 1780 to 1795 Norrisian professor of divinity at Cambridge; James Fawcett, winner of the Latin essay at Cambridge, fellow of S. John's College, Lady Margaret preacher, and Norrisian professor 1795-1815; Richard Fawcett, vicar of Leeds 1815-1837; John Sheepshanks, fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, incumbent Qf Trinity Church, Leeds 1802-1844, and arch- deacon of Cornwall; and, most distinguished of all, the two Milners, whose careers are worth sketching as showing the kind of help the School was then giving to poor but promising boys.

JOSEPH AND ISAAC MILNER were sons of a poor weaver at Leeds. Joseph was remarkable as a schoolboy for his great memory. Mr. Moore, we are told, used to say, �Milner is more easily consulted than the Dictionaries or the Pantheon and he is quite as much to be relied on.� Isaac, when only 6 years old, began to accompany him to school, and �at 10 years of age could construe Ovid and Sallust into tolerable English and was then beginning to learn the rudiments of the Greek language.� When only 8 years old he is said to have constructed a sundial. The death of the father left the family badly off, but Mr. Moore was determined to send Joseph to college. Pupils were got for him, and he obtained the post of chapel clerk at Catherine Hall, Cambridge, Mr. Moore's own college, and in 1766 became 3rd senior optime and 2nd Chancellor's medallist. He was then for a time at Thorpe Arch as assistant in the school and curate in the church. Afterwards he became headmaster of Hull Grammar School and in 1797, the year of his death, vicar there. He was a leader of the evangelical party and is still known for his history of the Church. Isaac Milner on his father's death had to take to weaving, and was �accustomed to work at the loom with a Tacitus by his side.� By such means he picked up enough learning to become assistant to his brother at Hull and to enter at Queens' College, Cambridge, as a sizar. In 1774 he took a brilliant degree, being senior wrangler and 1st Smith's prizeman, and from his superiority to his contemporaries was styled �incomparabilis.� An equally brilliant career followed. He became fellow of Queens' College 1776, F.R.S. 1780, Jacksonian professor of natural and experimental philosophy 1783, president of Queens' 1788, vice-chancellor of Cambridge 1792 and 1809, dean of Carlisle 1792, Lucasian professor of mathematics 1798. He was a friend of Pitt and Wilberforce, and died in 1820. In a letter, written in 1815, he said:

�My late brother, the Rev. Joseph Milner, as well as myself ever retained a most grateful remembrance of the advantages which we derived from our education in the said school, and I have no scruple to own that both of us, under a kind Providence, have ever had reason to ascribe all our successes in life to the instructions of the school of Leeds and the liberality of the town and neighbourhood. The experience of almost 50 years in this university has convinced me that a youth properly trained and exercised in a good country school may be full as well prepared for what are called 'the learned professions' as any other persons, be they whom they may, and in regard to the useful qualifications of merchants and men of business or even the ornamental accomplishments of the higher classes of society it is well known that the country schools have in many instances been observed to merit a decided preference.�

Three other boys won high distinction at Cambridge�Joseph Procter, who became 3rd wrangler and 2nd Smith's prizeman 1783, fellow (1784) and master (1799) of Catherine Hall, and vice-chancellor 1801 and 1825; Richard Hey, 3rd wrangler and senior Chancellor's medallist 1768 and fellow of Sidney Sussex and Magdalene Colleges; and Joseph Jowett, fellow of Trinity Hall and Regius professor of civil law in 1782. Another distinguished lawyer was Sir Thomas Denison, a clothier's son, who became a judge in 1742. Altogether in the period covered in this chapter Leeds boys obtained at least 21 fellowships, 12 became wranglers, and 5 headmasters.

FEW BUT GRADUATES are recorded in the list. Hence it is that I can only find the name of one mayor of Leeds�Jeremiah Dixon�and one M.P.�John Sharp. Three men however, could not be omitted�John Berkenhout, soldier, diplomatist, painter, musician, linguist, writer on political economy, and compiler of the �Clavis Angliae Linguae Botanicae��at that time the only botanical lexicon in our language.� Benjamin Wilson, F.R.S. famous both as a scientist and an artist; and John Smeaton, F.R.S. the famous engineer, of whom tradition says that even as a child he had a taste for mechanics and distinguished himself at school in geometry and arithmetic.

In the list, such as it is, three things are noteworthy�the successes of Mr. Barnard's pupils, the remarkable number of mathematical honours, and the few boys who went to Oxford. The last may be due to the fact that the Oxford records have not been thoroughly examined, but the real reason probably is that the masters were mainly Cambridge men. One thing however that tended to redress the balance was the establishment of the Hastings' exhibitions at Oxford.

These were founded by Lady Elizabeth Hastings of Ledstone, who in 1739 bequeathed all her �manners lands and hereditaments in Wheldale, otherwise called Queldale, in the West Riding of the county of York� to Queen's College, Oxford, on condition that, after the death of certain annuitants, �140 should �from time to time be applied for Exhibitions towards the maintenance of 5 poor scholars of the said College.� The elections were to be held every 5 years. 8 schools in Yorkshire (Leeds, Wakefield, Bradford, Beverley, Skipton, �Sedborough,� Ripon, Sherborne), 2 in Westmorland (Appleby and Haversham), and 2 in Cumberland (S. Bees and Penrith) might each send in 1 candidate at each election. Each candidate was to bring with him a certificate from his headmaster, to show �that he hath distinguished himself above the rest of the same rank in his school for his morals and learning, that such scholar is well grounded in the principles of the Church of England as by law established, that he hath competent Parts and remarkable Industry, and that he hath applied himself to the reading of Greek authors at least 4 years;� and another to show that he had entered on his 19th and had not completed his 21st year. The candidates were to meet at �the best inn in Abberford� on the Wednesday in Whitsun week, and at 8 a.m. on the next day they were to be examined by the rectors of Barwick, Spofforth, and Bolton Percy, and the vicars of Leeds, Ledsham, Thorpe Arch, and Collingham. In the morning they should translate (a) into English, 8 or 10 lines of an �Oration in Tully�; (b) into Latin, 8 or 10 lines of Demosthenes; (c) into Greek, 2 or 3 verses of the Latin Testament. In the afternoon each boy was (a) to �give his thoughts� in 8 to 12 lines in Latin on some point of �Practical Divinity out of the Church Catechism�; (b) to write �two distichs of verses� on �some Distinguished Sentence of a Classic Author.� Of these exercises the rectors and vicars were to select 10 and send them to the college authorities who should reduce the number to 8 and put the 8 names into an urn, and the 5 whose names were first drawn were to be declared elected. For 4 years these were to �apply themselves . . . chiefly to the Arts and Sciences,� but in their 5th they were to be �employed wholly in Divinity, Church History, and the Apostolic Fathers in the original tongues,� with the view to taking Holy Orders. No more sons than one of the same person might be elected. For the expenses of each candidate from Yorkshire 5/- was allowed, and 10/- for those from Westmorland or Cumberland. If any of the specified schools should �so far come to decay as to have no scholar or scholars returned by the Rectors and Vicars to take their Lot by Ballotting ... in 4 successive elections,� the College might appoint others in their places but only from the same counties.

THE REGULATIONS ARE REMARKABLE and in several respects wise. The certificate of the headmaster secured that no unfit candidate was sent in. The examination tested thought as well as linguistic skill. The ballot was intended �to leave something to Providence,� and �to save the scholars the trouble and expense of a journey to Oxford under too great an uncertainty of ever being elected.� The directions too as to their studies were �to take from them all necessity for entering precipitately into Holy Orders and to give them an opportunity of laying in some sort a foundation of Divine as well as human learning.� At the first election, held in 1764, the Leeds candidate was rejected by the electors. In 1769 Leeds sent in no candidate, but in 1774 Joseph Sharp was elected. In 1779 Joseph Whiteley was excluded by the ballot. In 1784 and 1789 there were no candidates from Leeds. From 1794 the names of Leeds boys appear frequently in the list, and altogether more than 40 have benefited by Lady Elizabeth's benefaction.

Great changes however have been made in the regulations. Even at an early date these met with criticism. Mr. Barnard thought that �some other extended trial of thought and invention would enable the examiners to see farther into the parts and genius of the scholars,� and in the Brief History fault was found with the age limit as preventing a candidate rejected by the lot from obtaining a scholarship elsewhere. Now all the characteristic features of the bequest have vanished. �Lady Betty's� wish was to help boys to become clergymen in the Church of England, and divinity was an essential part both of the examination and of the Oxford course. Now the obligation to study theology has been dropped, the exhibitioners are no longer bound to become clergymen, and from the examination divinity has been eliminated, and the exhibitions are awarded for classics or mathematics or natural science or modern history, languages and literature. The rectors and vicars have no share in the election, and the ballot has given place to competition. There are still privileged schools, but their number has been increased, and of the original ones some have dropped out and others have been substituted. The minimum age was abolished in 1858, but it was stipulated that a candidate must have been at the school for the two previous years. The growing value of the endowment has led also to an increase in the number and value of the exhibitions. Originally there were 5 of �28 per annum, and the elections were held at intervals of 5 years. In 1822 the value had risen to more than �60, in 1843 to �100. In 1858 (according to the School Calendar) one exhibition of �75��90 was awarded every year. In 1868 two are mentioned, in 1869 three, in 1877 four or more. The provision that each school should send in only one candidate has been dropped since 1869 at least: in 1881 Leeds had 4 boys elected. That the foundation has done and is still doing useful work is indisputable, but whether Lady Elizabeth would have approved of the way in which her bequest has been treated appears to me more than doubtful.

THE HASTINGS EXHIBITIONS were for the benefit of boys going to Oxford. The school had however even prior to them a claim to certain close scholarships at Cambridge. The Rev. Thomas Milner, fellow of Magdalene: College, Cambridge, and vicar of Bexhill, Sussex by will, dated 5 Sept. 1721, with a codicil, dated 4 Sept. 1722, left about �1000 to found 3 scholarships at Magdalene College for boys educated at Heversham, Halifax, or Leeds Grammar Schools. This grant was to come into force on the death of his sister, Mrs. Mary Milner, and she by her will, dated 30 June 1733, added �200 to her brother's bequest. The first scholar was elected in 1738. The endowment, gradually increased in value. The Brief History says that in 1822 the income from it was �176, which was used for the maintenance of 4 scholars. It points out however that the conditions laid down in the founder's will were not entirely satisfactory, e.g.

(a) Candidates had to be previously admitted pensioners of the college, and a poor man found that if he had to pay the fees of a pensioner instead of those of a sizar the scholarship was of little value to him.

(b) It was merely said that the scholars should have been at one of the 3 schools, so that a certificate enabling any undergraduate to become a candidate might be procured �after an attendance of a single day at any one of them.�

Now candidates have no longer to be undergraduates, but must be under 19 years of age, and have been educated for at least 2 years at one of the privileged schools. The number of scholarships is still 4, but their value has varied considerably, e.g. in 1843 a scholarship is stated to be worth �80 per annum, in 1858 �60, in 1861 �70, in 1877 �80, in 1895 �65, in 1906 �55. The Milner Scholarship has often been won by Leeds boys. The earliest instance I can find is 1765, and there were at least 6 elected before 1800, but the records are very defective.

THERE WERE ALSO other exhibitions at Cambridge to which Leeds boys had some claim. John Freston�the name also appears as Freeston, Freyston and Frieston�of Altofts, left by will (26 Nov. 1594) �500, which his executors were directed to invest in land of the annual value of �25 and then to convey the same to Emmanuel College, Cambridge, for the purpose of founding one fellowship of �10 and two scholarships of �5. For these candidates from the schools of Normanton, Wakefield, Pontefract, Leeds, or Rotherham, were to have a preferential claim. In 1607 however the bequest was transferred to Sidney Sussex College, and by new statutes made in the middle of last century the rights of the schools were abolished and the money was �carried to the general funds of the college.� Whether Leeds boys ever derived any benefit from the bequest I have not been able to find out.

THIS WILL BE a convenient place to mention 2 other benefactions, connected more or less in directly with the School.

The first is that of the lady described by Thoresby as �the pious and charitable Madam Isabel Leighton (Daughter of Sir William Musgrave of Ireby in Cumberland) Relict of William Calverley, Ralph Hopton, Esq.; and Dr. Alexander Leighton (whose Son Robert was the celebrated Archbishop of Glasgow).� She lived, he adds, in �a most pleasant Seat at Little Woodhouse.�

According to the Inquisition of 1661 she on 1 Febr. 1653 surrendered 3 closes in Leeds Woodhouse �for the good and to ye use and benefit of the poor of the parish of Leedes.� The Jury found that she did in her lifetime declare that �her intent was that the use of the said lands should go and be employed for the maintenance of poor boys that were most towardly for learning for their teaching and instruction in the School of Leedes,� and so the Brief History is perhaps justified in including her among the benefactors of the School. On the other hand, the management of her lands was not vested in the Committee, and her name does not appear in the Table of Benefactions to the School in 1712, but in a different Table as giving �for the benefit of the Poor and for poor Children's Learning the Profits of Three Closes in Woodhouse.� In 1826 the trustees, according to the Charities Report, distributed the rent among the poor of Leeds, �and money has been occasionally given towards the education of the children of poor parents and for the support of a Sunday school.� In 1874 the land was sold, and the proceeds invested in Consols producing �56 5s. 0d. per annum. This money, by schemes of 1875 and 1879, was to be devoted to the education of poor children, and has been used for scholarships, free admissions to evening classes, prizes, etc. In the School Calendars of 1881-1884 two boys are mentioned as holding scholarships given by the Leighton Trustees.

The other benefaction is that of Alice Lodge in 1638.

The Charities Report of 1827 says:

�The testatrix, by her will, devised as follows:�
�I give unto the good of the town of Leeds for ever one close in the field of Leeds Woodhouse, called Crimbles, of the yearly rent of �5 to be bestowed in what use my executor shall think fitting��and she appointed William Lodge, her eldest son, sole executor of her will. The close, until about the year 1816, remained in the possession of the family of Lodge, as owners thereof, and they used to pay �5 a year in respect of the land for the use of the charity school, but a copy of this will having been procured, and the opinion of counsel taken on the effect of the devise, in consequence thereof and of further steps that were taken, the party in possession consented to give up the close to the Committee of Pious Uses, and it being considered that the highway trust answered more nearly to the testatrix's object, as mentioned in her will, than any other established charity in Leeds, the rents of the close, now �16 16s. a year, have been applied as part of the income of the highway trust.�

On 28 July 1890, however, it was decided by the Committee that the Alice Lodge Estate Funds should be applied to the Grammar School, on the ground that they had of old been used for educational purposes.

IT MUST NOT, of course, be supposed that the Charity School was the same as the Grammar School. It was established by subscriptions c.1705 for the maintenance and education of 40 poor children in the principles of the established Church and their instruction in reading writing and arithmetic so as to qualify them for trade. With it the Committee had nothing to do, but it is interesting to find that they were interested in at least 2 schools in which elementary education was given.

One of these was held in the Chapel at the Bridge End, which was acquired by the Feoffees in 1579. Here Thoresby says that there was in his youth �a private Grammar School,� and he adds �the higher Story is for Writing and Arithmetick, lately taught by Mr. Robert Kettlewell.� This school is mentioned several times in the minutes, e.g.

1675. Robert Kettlewell, gent., allowed and approved to keep a writeing school in the Schoole at Leedes bridge end on condition of entering into a bond of �100 to deliver up the school �if the Major p'te of the Feoffees see sufficient cause for his removall.�
1676. John Moore, gent., ditto.
1677. Joseph Pickles, gent., ditto.
1694. Mr. John Rotton admitted vice Lawson (?) deceased but to keep it in good repair.
1698-9. Mr. Robert Jackson to have use of the school and to agree with Mr. Hurst for such benches etc. as he has there.
1706. Order to consider repairs with Mr. John Daniell (who had succeeded Mr. Samuel Walker as writing master) and Mr. John Lucas, master of the reading school.
1713. Mr. Joseph Allen to be writing master.
1726. Mr. Chr. Jackson to succeed Mr. Lucas (removed to be one of the masters at the Charity School) as master��to be continued therein so long as he shall behave himself industriously and orderly in that profession or untill further order be made to the contrary.�

The Chapel was still in existence in 1760 and was known as �the old school.� No mention is made of any stipend for the masters and possibly they received merely the building and ran the school as a private speculation. How far it was connected with the Grammar School there is no evidence to show, but every Grammar School boy would have had to know how to read and to write and this school may possibly have served as a kind of preparatory department for the other.

THE SECOND SCHOOL was at Woodhouse. The connection however consisted only of an annual grant of �3. This is first mentioned in 1725 when it was ordered that �fifteen shillings per Quarter be Allowed to Mr. Richard Bateson Schoolmaster of Great Woodhouse . . . for teaching poor Children to the number of ffifteen (that is to say) Twelve pence for each Childe and that he teach them the Church Catechism and bring them to the Church to be Catechized when they shall have learnt and be fit for the same.� A similar sum was voted in 1762, and also in 1770 on condition of �the Inhabitants paying other �3� The latest entry�in 1846�states that the vicar of S. Mark's, Woodhouse, explained some changes in the school of Feather Hill to which the Court had long granted �3, and that the grant was confirmed.


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Postscript Assistant Masters since 1854

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